Georgia Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2004)

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Constitutional Amendment 1 was on the November 2, 2004 ballot in Georgia as a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment, where it was approved.[1]

Election results

Question 1
Approveda Yes 2,454,930 76.2%

Text of measure

The text of the measure said:

Shall the Constitution be amended so as to provide that this state shall recognize as marriage only the union of man and woman?

This first paragraph of this proposal provides that Georgia shall recognize as marriage only the union of man and woman and prohibits marriages between persons of the same sex in this state. The second paragraph of this proposal further provides that the state: (1) shall not recognize any union between persons of the same sex as being entitled to the benefits of marriage; (2) shall not give effect to any public act, record, or judicial proceeding of any other state or jurisdiction respecting a relationship between persons of the same sex where that relationship is treated as a marriage under the laws of such other state or jurisdiction; and (3) removes from the jurisdiction of Georgia's courts the ability to grant a divorce or separate maintenance or otherwise consider or rule on parties' rights arising from or in connection with such a same sex relationship.

Financing the campaign

$92,765 was spent to promote the measure, while nothing was spent to oppose it.

The two major donors to the pro-campaign were:

  • Yes! Marriage Amendment Alliance, $75,115.
  • Focus on the Family Georgia Marriage Amendment Committee, $17,650.[2]

Related measures

Voters in 30 states have approved legislatively-referred constitutional amendments or initiated constitutional amendments prohibiting same-sex marriages at the ballot box. The first constitutional prohibition was in 1998, and the latest one occurred in May 2012. Most of these amendments define marriage along the lines of a "union of one male and one female."


The following constitutional bans were approved by voters, but later overturned by courts:


Cases overturning the following bans have been appealed to higher courts and are currently stayed:

Note: Same-sex marriage is legal in St. Louis County and the state recognizes same-sex marriages.


The following constitutional bans were approved by voters and have been upheld or not overturned by courts:


The following constitutional bans were defeated by voters:

Note: Arizonans defeated a measure in 2006, but approved one in 2008, which has been overturned.

See also

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