North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012)

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Same-Sex Marriage Amendment
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Type:Constitutional amendment
Constitution:North Carolina Constitution (Art. 14, Sec. 6)
Referred by:North Carolina General Assembly
Topic:Marriage
Status:Approveda
The North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage Amendment appeared on the May 8, 2012 ballot in the state of North Carolina as a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment, where it was approved. Approveda

The measure defines marriage in the state constitution as between one man and one woman, and bans any other type of "domestic legal union" such as civil unions and domestic partnerships.[1][2]

Same-sex marriage is already illegal in the state of North Carolina. The measure, however, added the ban to the state constitution.[3]

Debated in the state legislature during the Spring 2011 legislative session, the amendment failed to receive sufficient votes to qualify for the ballot. However, the measure was debated during the Fall session which began September 12, 2011.[4] That very day, the House voted 75-42 in favor of referring the proposed amendment to the statewide ballot.[5] The State Senate echoed the House with a 30-16 approval vote a day later on September 13, 2011.[6]

Aftermath

The US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit became the second federal court to make a ruling about same-sex marriage on July 28, 2014. The court ruled that same-sex marriage bans such as Amendment 1 were unconstitutional.[7]

In their decision, the court said:[8]

The choice of whether and whom to marry is an intensely personal decision that alters the course of an individual’s life. Denying same-sex couples this choice prohibits them from participating fully in our society, which is precisely the type of segregation that the Fourteenth Amendment cannot countenance.

[9]

As a decision made by a federal appeals court, this decision also has an impact on similar measures in South Carolina and Virginia.

Election results

The following are official election results:

Amendment 1
ResultVotesPercentage
Approveda Yes 1,317,178 61.04%
No840,80238.96%


100 of 100 Counties Reporting

Results via the North Carolina Board of Elections.

Text of measure

Ballot language

The language that voters saw on the ballot reads:[10]

Constitutional amendment to provide that marriage between one man and one woman is the only domestic legal union that shall be valid or recognized in this State.

Constitutional changes

The proposed measure amended Article 14 of the North Carolina Constitution by adding a new section:

Sec. 6. Marriage.

Marriage between one man and one woman is the only domestic legal union that shall be valid or recognized in this State. This section does not prohibit a private party from entering into contracts with another private party; nor does this section prohibit courts from adjudicating the rights of private parties pursuant to such contracts.

Background

A total of three bills were filed in the North Carolina Senate (SB106 and SB514) and the other in the House (HB 777).[11]

The primary sponsors of SB 106 included Senators James Forrester, Jerry W. Tillman, and Daniel Soucek. The primary sponsor for SB 514 was Peter S. Brunstetter.

Sponsors of the House version included Reps. David Lewis, Sr., Rayne Brown, James Crawford, Jr. and Dewey Hill.

Neither measure received sufficient votes to qualify for the ballot during the regular 2011 legislative session. However, in late June 2011 House Speaker Thom Tillis said he expected the measure to resurface during the Fall 2011 special legislative session.[12]

Support

Supporters

Arguments

  • Supporters of the amendment argued that without an amendment banning same-sex unions, situations in which married same-sex couples move from states like New York would seek legal rights and they argued that the state was not "equipped to handle that." Rep. Paul Stam said, "They're going to bring with them their same-sex marriages. They're going to want to get divorced" and have custody issues decided, he said. "We're not equipped to handle that."[5]
  • Supporters also argued that the issue should be settled by voters and that polls indicate that there was support for such an amendment. "It is too serious a topic for a handful of people (legislators) to make a decision like that," said Rep. Larry Brown.[21]
  • Rep. Mitch Gillespie said, "We've been fighting for this for a long time. I fully expect it to pass this year and I expect a large bipartisan vote on it."[22]
  • Tami Fitzgerald, executive director of N.C. Values Coalition, argued that placing the amendment was the "right thing to do" and it fulfilled the democratic process by allowing everybody to vote. Fitzgerald added, "The people of North Carolina want to determine for themselves how they want to define marriage. They don’t want activist judges doing it for them."[23]
  • In a response to President Obama's statement of opposition to the measure, Bishop Burbidge and Bishop Jugis penned a joint statement further explaining their support of the amendment, saying, "Our profound regard for marriage, as the complementary and fruitful union of a man and a woman does not negate our concern for the well-being of all people, but reinforces it."[24]
  • When asked why elected officials were focusing on social issues during hard economic times, Union County Commissioner Todd Johnson responded by saying, "One thing comes to mind. If the moral and social issues of our country are not addressed, we don’t have to worry about the economic issues. They will not matter at that point in time."[25]

Campaign advertisements

See also: North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012), TV ads

The group Vote FOR Marriage NC ran a series of ads supporting the amendment, including one specifically targeting an ad from the opposition.[26]

Tactics and strategies

  • On May 17, 2011 an estimated 3,500 Christian conservatives gathered in Raleigh, North Carolina. Supporters included pastors and evangelists. The rally was also attended by amendment opponents.[27] "It's not a right that they have. God designed marriage between one man, and one woman. That's it," said Diane Bridgeman, a supporter of traditional marriage.[28]
  • The Durham County Republican Party passed a resolution at their annual convention, on March 17, 2012, expressing support for the amendment and arguing that the amendment gives citizens of North Carolina a vote on the issue before it can be decided by the court or state without the people's consent. The resolution further argues that the amendment does not change existing law and can be revoked by voters in the future.[17] The text of the resolution can be found here.
  • On Friday, April 20, 2012, supporters of the amendment gathered in Raleigh for Return America rally. The rally hosted a number of high profile speakers, including Mary Frances Forrester, widow of the amendment's primary sponsor, Senator James Forrester.[18]

Campaign contributions

According to news reports, N.C. Values Coalition, the organization that supported the measure during the legislative review, made the first donation ($1,000) to the pro-amendment committee.[29]

The following data was obtained from the North Carolina Board of Elections.

PAC info:

PAC Amount raised
Vote for Marriage NC $1,192,278.59[30]
Total $1,192,278.59

Opposition


Rise Up Against Amendment One, May 6, 2012

Opponents

  • Several committees in opposition of the measure filed with the state. Those committees were included in the Coalition to Protect NC Families; Human Rights Campaign NC Families PAC.[31][32][14]
  • President Barack Obama[33]
  • Rep. Larry Hall
  • Rep. Joe Hackney, the House Minority Leader
  • Rev. T. Anthony Spearman, pastor of Clinton Tabernacle African Methodist Episcopal Zion
  • Chapel Hill Town Council
  • Congresswoman Renee Ellmers
  • Log Cabin Republicans
  • Equality North Carolina
  • Gov. Bev Purdue
  • Raleigh City Council
  • Sherre Toler, former Director of Elections for Harnett County, who resigned because of the referendum[34]
  • Orange County Board of Commissioners[35]
  • Bob Etheridge, candidate for Governor of North Carolina[36]
  • Sen. Kay Hagan[37]
  • John Hood, president of the conservative John Locke Foundation in Raleigh[38]
  • Robert Orr, former justice of the N.C. Supreme Court[38]
  • Richard Vinroot, former mayor of Charlotte[38]
  • North Carolina chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People[39]
  • Former President Bill Clinton[40]

On September 12, 2011 more than 75 North Carolina CEOs signed an open letter to state officials asking them to halt efforts to approve the proposed amendment. Signers included:[41][42]

  • Martin Eakes, CEO of Self Help and the Center for Responsible Lending;
  • Kel Landis, a partner in Pelux Capital;
  • Ping Fu, CEO of Geomagic;
  • Marc Noel, chairman of the Noel Group;
  • Ryan Allis, CEO of iContact;
  • Barbara Goodmon, president of the A.J. Fletcher Foundation;
  • Andy and Barbara Rotchschild, principals of Scientific Properties;
  • Gordon Grubb, CEO of Grubb Ventures;
  • Chuck Wilson, owner and president of CT Wilson Construction;
  • Scott Custer, CEO of Piedmont Community Bank;
  • Joseh DeSimone, founder of Liquidia Technologies;
  • Peter Norvig, Director of Research, Google Inc.

Arguments

  • Opponents of the measure argued that a ban on legal same-sex unions should not be added to the state constitution. They also argued that the subject - "rights of a minority" - should not be up for a vote.[22] Others argued that the proposed amendment may lead to more bullying of gay youth; in addition, the amendment could invalidate certain domestic violence protections for unmarried couples, gay or straight.[5][43]
  • Some lawmakers argued that the proposed amendment would hurt employment in the state. Rep. Larry Hall said, "Instead of creating an environment where we can create employment, attract entrepreneurs (and) attract talent, we're going to try to put a sign up to say, 'You are not welcome if you want to contribute to our society.'"[44]
  • Rev. T. Anthony Spearman, pastor of Clinton Tabernacle African Methodist Episcopal Zion said that the amendment "is not fair and it certainly is not just."[22]
  • According to reports, Democrats argued that the amendment was a tactic to help Republicans attract more voters to the election polls in 2012 which would reportedly would have close elections for president and governor.[44]
  • "This is a transient issue of public policy and it has no place in the Constitution of North Carolina," said Rep. Joe Hackney, the House Minority Leader.[5]
  • On September 12, 2011 the Chapel Hill Town Council passed a resolution in opposition of the proposed amendment. "We do not believe in discriminating against people, no matter who they are," said council member Penny Rich. The town at the time offered equal benefits to couples in a domestic partnership regardless of sexual orientation, and would not be permitted to continue offering these benefits if the amendment passed.[45]
  • President Barack Obama spoke out against the proposed amendment. "While the president does not weigh in on every single ballot measure in every state, the record is clear that the president has long opposed divisive and discriminatory efforts to deny rights and benefits to same-sex couples," said White House spokesman Cameron French.[46]
  • A spokesperson for Congresswoman Renee Ellmers said, "As a voter, she [Ellmers] would vote against a piece of legislation that would add a ban on civil unions to the protection of marriage since they are two different issues and should be dealt with separately."[47]
  • Log Cabin Republicans Executive Director R. Clarke Cooper said, "The proposed constitutional amendment is an unnecessary and overreaching incursion on North Carolina families, and with the opposition of conservatives like Rep. Ellmers, it will fail."[47]
  • On October 7, 2011 Gov. Bev Perdue announced that she planned to vote against the amendment. In a press release she said, "I continue to support that law today. But I'm going to vote against the amendment because I cannot in good conscience look an unemployed man or woman in the eye and tell them that this amendment is more important than finding them a job."[48][49]
  • On December 6, 2011 Raleigh City Council passed a resolution (6-2 vote) in opposition of the same-sex marriage amendment.[50][51]
  • In a statement made against the amendment, Sen. Kay Hagan said, "North Carolina is one of the most business-friendly states in the nation, and this amendment would harm our state’s ability to recruit the innovators and businesses that are driving our economic recovery."[37]
  • Some opponents of the measure, such as Ed Hanes Jr., a candidate for NC House District 72, and Rev. Paul Lowe, pastor of Shiloh Baptist Church, expressed their belief that the purpose of the amendment was to divide voters during a crucial election year. Hanes spoke to Democratic voters in Winston-Salem saying, "It's an amendment put in place to ensure that we stay not focused on what our ultimate goal needs to be, and that is ensuring that our president, Barack Hussein Obama, is re-elected this year."[52]

Campaign advertisements

See also: North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012), TV ads

At the launch of the campaign against the proposed measure, "Protect All North Carolina Families" released a couple of videos. One video highlighted people discussing reasons why to oppose the measure, the other called for increased conversation about the proposed amendment.[53] Since then, the organization has produced many more videos opposing the Amendment, including statements from law professors and politicians.[54]

The state chapter of the NAACP launched a radio campaign against the amendment asking that North Carolina voters oppose the amendment in the name of keeping discrimination out of the state constitution. The state NAACP said that although it opposed the amendment, its campaigning at the time should not be viewed as a stance on gay marriage.[39]

Tactics, strategies and events

Sept. 13, 2011 rally in Raleigh, North Carolina
  • On May 17, 2011 opponents of the proposed measure gathered in Raleigh, North Carolina. According to reports, an estimated 3,500 supporters of traditional marriage were also in attendance.[28]
  • According to reports, on June 24, 2011 hundreds marched from the Convention Center to Marshall Park in Charlotte, North Carolina in protest of the proposed anti-gay marriage amendment.[55]
  • In August 2011 Matt Phillippi of Equality North Carolina launched an effort at the N.C. Gay and Lesbian Film Festival where opponents of the proposed legislation signed postcards. According to Phillippi more than 500 postcards were signed. The group planned to deliver an estimated 5,000 postcards to legislators in September when lawmakers return to session to consider the proposed amendment.[56]
  • On September 6, 2011 key members of the House Democratic Caucus gathered for a news conference at the Legislative Building to speak against the amendment. Among the speakers were business executives.[57]
  • On September 13, 2011 a rally was scheduled on the same day that the North Carolina State Senate was expected to debate the proposed amendment. The rally took place behind the Legislative Building in Raleigh, North Carolina.[58]
  • On October 15, 2011 activists gathered in uptown Charlotte.[59]
  • On March 15, 2012 a group called "Honest NC," which consists of North Carolina State University alumni, planned to hold a march in downtown Raleigh.[60]
  • In late January the group "Equality NC" began a pledge drive called "Race to the Ballot." The event took place over the course of several weeks in February. Reportedly, the event's goal was to raise voter awareness of what will be on this year's primary ballot.[61]
  • According to reports, opponents of the amendment moved arguments away from civil-union issues and, instead, focused on the possibility that the amendment would compromise a variety of legal assets available to all unmarried couples. Opponents cited domestic violence protection, wills, employment benefits and custody agreements as legal rights endangered by the amendment.[62]
  • On February 8, 2012, an event was held at the Episcopal Church of the Redeemer in Shelby, N.C., during which local faith leaders spoke out against the amendment. The event was hosted by Neighbors for Equality, Gardner-Webb University’s chapter of Amnesty International, and the church itself. Speaking about the groups' attempts at reaching out to voters, Tyler J. McCall, co-executive director for Neighbors for Equality, said, "The conversations surrounding this legislation are not easy, and we look forward to creating a welcoming environment for our neighbors to join us in talking about this difficult topic."[63]
  • On the weekend before the vote, several concerts were scheduled to attempt to raise awareness of the amendment. On May 5 the Nightlight in Chapel Hill hosted an Amendment One Awareness Show. The Coalition to Protect All North Carolina Families, Cat’s Cradle in Carrboro, and Durham’s Merge Records all contributed to a May 6 event, called Concert to Defeat Amendment One, held at the Haw River Ballroom in Saxapahaw.[64]
  • The Coalition to Protect NC Families held an online fundraiser through Twitter on April 30, 2012. According to Nation Hahn, director of online engagement for the group, about $43,000 was raised in the effort.[65]

Campaign contributions

The following data was obtained from the North Carolina Board of Elections.

PAC info:

PAC Amount raised
Coalition to Protect NC Families $2,261,849.63[66]
Human Rights Campaign NC Families PAC $79,315.18[67]
Total $2,341,164.81

Controversies and developments

Ballot text

Hear about these developments
BPVoice.png
Episode 6 (2012)
• February 16, 2012

In mid-September 2011 following the referral of the same-sex marriage amendment to the 2012 statewide ballot, it was identified that a sentence was not included in the text scheduled to appear on the ballot. The sentence clarified that the ban would not prohibit private businesses from offering employment contracts that include benefits to domestic partners.[68]

Rep. Paul Stam, one of the proponents of the amendment said that the missing sentence was unnecessary. "The sentence is not even strictly necessary because that's the effect of the first sentence anyway," he said.[68]

However, others argued that the omission of the second sentence could have opened the proposed amendment to legal challenge and various interpretations by the courts. Rep. Rick Glazier said, "That sentence was crucial in some legislators' minds about why they were willing to vote for it (and) pretty crucial to the business community. To say you can have half of this constitutional amendment with half of it gone ... makes no sense whatsoever."[68]

May 2012 vote

The vote on the proposed same-sex marriage amendment was scheduled for May 8, 2012, primary ballot rather than the November 2012 general election ballot.

According to reports, the move to the primary ballot alleviated concerns by Democratic lawmakers who believed a November vote may have been boosted by a higher conservative turnout for the presidential election. However, others argued that a May primary vote may make it more likely that the amendment would gain approval due to a potentially higher turnout by conservatives for the GOP presidential primary.[69]

Gubernatorial election

In January of 2012, Governor Beverly Perdue decided not to run for re-election. This decision could have affected the outcome of the amendment due to the fact that her decision added a Democratic primary for governor to the May 8 ballot. Jeremy Kennedy, campaign coordinator for the Coalition to Protect All NC Families, believed this would aid the efforts to defeat the amendment, saying, "We know that progressive voters who would turn out in a democratic primary by in large tend to be with us on this issue, but I'll temper that by saying there's still a lot of work to be done."[70] For more on this race, please see here.

Media endorsements

See also: Endorsements of North Carolina ballot measures, 2012

Opposition

  • North Carolina newspaper The Pilot published an editorial on April 19 showing opposition to the amendment, they had this to say about the measure: "Besides being unnecessary, Amendment One is dictatorial, demeaning and discriminatory. Here’s hoping it will soon be dead."[71]
  • Triangle-area newspaper The Independent Weekly published its endorsements for the primary and came out against the amendment. They wrote, "North Carolina can cast a clarion vote against discrimination and in favor of human dignity and loving relationships by rejecting Amendment 1."[72]
  • On April 29, The New York Times published an editorial opposing the measure, writing, "North Carolinians need to consider whether they really want to inflict this gratuitous bigotry on their fellow citizens and their children."[73]
  • The Spring Hope Enterprise published an opinion opposing the amendment on April 5, 2012, saying, "The amendment is not necessary, is seriously flawed legally and over-broad, and even its supporters acknowledge is likely to be repealed in only a few years."[74]

Polls

See also: Polls, 2012 ballot measures
  • A March 15-19, 2009, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 43% support an amendment on same-sex marriage, while 50% were opposed and 5% were undecided. A total of 620 registered voters were polled.[75]
  • A February 20-24, 2011, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 38% support an amendment, while 56% were opposed and 5% were undecided. A total of 467 registered voters were polled.[76]
  • An August 15-16, 2011, poll by National Research, Inc. revealed that 49% support an amendment on same-sex marriage, while 43% were opposed and 7% were undecided. A total of 400 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-4.9%. The poll was sponsored by the John W. Pope Civitas Institute.[77]
  • A September 25-29, 2011, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 39% supported the amendment, while 56% opposed the amendment and 5% were undecided. A total of 594 registered voters were polled. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.02 percentage points.[78][79]
  • A September 30-October 3, 2011, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 61% support an amendment to establish marriage between one man and one woman, while 34% were opposed. A total of 760 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.6%.[80][81]
  • An October 27-31, 2011, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 59% support the amendment, while 35% were opposed and 6% were undecided. A total of 615 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-4.0%.[82]
  • An October 31-November 2, 2011, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 37% support the amendment, while 57% were opposed and 6% were undecided. A total of 529 voters were polled. The margin of error was +/- 4.26 percentage points.[83]
  • A December 1-4, 2011, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 58% support the amendment, while 32% were opposed and 10% were undecided. A total of 865 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.3%.[84]
  • A January 5-6, 2012, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 56% would vote for the amendment (as written, without explanation), while 34% were opposed and 10% were undecided. A total of 780 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.5%.[85]
  • A March 26-29, 2012, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 32% would support an amendment banning same-sex marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships, while 61% would oppose such an amendment, and 6% are undecided. A total of 534 state residents were polled.[86]
  • An April 20-22, 2012, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 54% would vote for the amendment, while 40% would vote against it, and 6% were undecided. A total of 1,139 likely primary voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-2.9%.[87]
  • An April 27-29, 2012, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 55% would vote for the amendment, while 41% would vote against it, and 4% were undecided. A total of 982 likely primary voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.1%.[88]
Legend

     Position is ahead and at or over 50%     Position is ahead or tied, but under 50%

Date of Poll Pollster In favor Opposed Undecided Number polled
March 15-19, 2009 Elon University Poll 43% 50% 5% 620
Feb. 20-24, 2011 Elon University Poll 38% 56% 5% 467
August 15-16, 2011 National Research, Inc. 49% 43% 7% 400
Sept. 25-29, 2011 Elon University Poll 39% 56% 5% 594
Sept. 30-Oct. 3, 2011 Public Policy Polling 61% 34% 5% 760
Oct. 27-31, 2011 Public Policy Polling 59% 35% 6% 615
Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 2011 Elon University Poll 37% 57% 6% 529
Dec. 1-4, 2011 Public Policy Polling 58% 32% 10% 865
Jan. 5-8, 2012 Public Policy Polling 56% 34% 10% 780
Mar. 26-29, 2012 Elon University Poll 32% 61% 6% 534
Apr. 20-22, 2012 Public Policy Polling 54% 40% 6% 1,139
Apr. 27-29, 2012 Public Policy Polling 55% 41% 4% 982

Path to the ballot

See also: Amending the North Carolina Constitution

The North Carolina Constitution, Section 4 of Article XIII, requires that a legislatively-referred amendment go on the ballot after it is approved by a 60% vote of each house of the North Carolina State Legislature.

On September 12, 2011, the House voted 75-42 in favor of referring the proposed amendment to the statewide ballot.[5] The State Senate echoed the House with a 30-16 approval vote a day later on September 13, 2011.[89]

Timeline

Calendar.png

The following is a timeline of events relating to the measure:

Event Date Developments
SB 106 Feb. 22, 2011 SB 106 filed in the Senate
SB 514 April 5, 2011 SB 514 filed in the Senate
HB 777 April 6, 2011 HB 777 filed in the House
House vote Sept. 12, 2011 North Carolina House of Representatives votes 75-42 in favor on SB 514
Senate vote Sept. 13, 2011 North Carolina Senate votes 30-16 in support on SB 514
Explanation prepared March 1, 2012 NC Constitutional Amendments Publication Commission prepares explanation of measure for media and election boards.

Similar measures

The following are measures that banned or attempted to ban same-sex marriages. Note that a number of them have been overturned.

See also

Articles

External links

Other 2011 bills

Campaign links

Ballot measure Main website FaceBook 24x24.png Facebook Twitter bird.png Twitter Youtube small.png YouTube
Amendment 1 Vote For Marriage NC Vote for Marriage NC Vote for Marriage NC Vote for Marriage NC
The Coalition to Protect NC Families Protect NC Families Protect NC Families Protect NC Families

Additional reading

References

  1. QNotes,"Anti-gay marriage amendment filed in N.C. Senate," February 22, 2011
  2. ENCToday.com,"Same sex marriage ban aims to protect definition of marriage," February 24, 2011
  3. The Huffington Post,"North Carolina Puts Gay Marriage Ban On May 2012 Ballot," September 13, 2011
  4. The American Independent,"North Carolina legislators to propose constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage," August 26, 2011
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 News Observer,"N.C. House OKs amendment banning gay marriage," September 13, 2011
  6. The Washington Independent,"Anti-gay marriage amendment heads to N.C. ballot without public input," September 13, 2011
  7. USA Today, "Appeals panel strikes down Virginia gay marriage ban," July 28, 2014
  8. NBC News, "Second Appeals Court Strikes Down Same-Sex Marriage Ban," July 28, 2014
  9. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  10. North Carolina General Assembly,"SB 514 full text," accessed September 13, 2011
  11. goqnotes.com,"Anti-gay amendment filed in N.C. House," April 6, 2011
  12. Citizen Times,"N.C. Speaker defends staff salaries, talks about gay marriage in Asheville interview," June 30, 2011
  13. North Carolina State Board of Elections,"Committee filings," accessed December 8, 2011
  14. 14.0 14.1 News & Record,"Marriage Amendment committees," December 1, 2011
  15. Associated Press,"Referendum committee to back passage of gay marriage ban referendum in North Carolina formed," December 1, 2011
  16. Goston Gazette, "Local Catholic leaders show support for marriage amendment," February 12, 2012
  17. 17.0 17.1 Durham County Republican Party press release, March 18, 2012
  18. 18.0 18.1 Star News Online, "Faith leaders on both sides of Amendment One," April 20, 2012
  19. Huffington Post, "North Carolina Amendment 1: Newt Gingrich Encourages Anti-Gay Ballot Measure," April 23, 2012
  20. Huffington Post, "Billy Graham Backs Anti-Gay Marriage Amendment In North Carolina," May 2, 2012
  21. Winston-Salem Journal,"Same-sex marriage back on N.C. front burner," September 18, 2011
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 News Observer,"Same-sex marriage foes rally for amendment," May 18, 2011
  23. Advocate.com,"N.C. Marriage Ban Supporter Wants the People to Decide," August 23, 2011
  24. NBC 17 "NC Catholic Bishops denounce Obama's stance on Amendment 1," March 26, 2012
  25. Charlotte Observer, "Union County board favors ban on same-sex marriage," April 3, 2012
  26. Baptist Press, "NC gay 'marriage' backers try to change subject," April 26, 2012
  27. The Miami Herald,"N.C. gay marriage foes rally for constitutional ban," May 18, 2011
  28. 28.0 28.1 CBNNews.com,"Traditional Marriage Supporters Rally at NC Capitol," May 18, 2011
  29. News & Observer,"Dome: Anti-gay marriage forces are marshaling," December 2, 2011
  30. Vote for Marriage NC pre-referendum campaign finance report, accessed May 2, 2012
  31. North Carolina State Board of Elections,"Committee filings - Coalition to Protect NC Families," accessed December 8, 2011
  32. North Carolina State Board of Elections,"Committee filings - Human Rights Campaign," accessed December 8, 2011
  33. Huffington Post, "Obama Opposes Amendment One, North Carolina Ballot Question Banning Gay Marriage," accessed March 16, 2012
  34. Towleroad, "NC Elections Official Resigns Over Anti-Gay Marriage Amendment," January 10, 2012
  35. Chapel Hill News, "Commissioners reject marriage amendment," February 1, 2012
  36. Associated Press, "Etheridge makes clear views on NC taxes, amendment," February 6, 2012
  37. 37.0 37.1 Advocate.com, "N.C. Senator Kay Hagan Speaks Out Against Antigay Amendment 1," February 22, 2012
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 Creative Loafing Charlotte, "How would Amendment One affect your life?" April 24, 2012
  39. 39.0 39.1 WXII12 "N.C. NAACP goes on radio against marriage amendment," April 27, 2012
  40. Care2 "Bill Clinton: Amendment 1 Will Hurt Families and Drive Away Jobs," May 7, 2012
  41. The News & Observer,"Business leaders ask lawmakers to think about jobs, not marriage," September 12, 2011
  42. Fulltext of the letter available on The Business Journals website
  43. ProtectAllNCFamilies,"Domestic Violence Protections"
  44. 44.0 44.1 WRAL,"Business, religion cited in NC gay marriage events," September 6, 2011
  45. The Daily Tar Heel,"Chapel Hill Town Council against NC Defense of Marriage Act," September 12, 2011
  46. Huffington Post,"Obama Opposes Amendment One, North Carolina Ballot Question Banning Gay Marriage" March 16, 2012
  47. 47.0 47.1 goqnotes.com,"Gay Republicans applaud Ellmers opposition to amendment," October 3, 2011
  48. The Charlotte Observer,"Political, not principled, stand on gay marriage," October 11, 2011
  49. Associated Press,"N.C. governor opposes gay-marriage amendment," October 8, 2011
  50. The Progressive Pulse,"Raleigh passes resolution opposing anti-gay constitutional amendment (video)," December 6, 2011
  51. News & Observer,"Raleigh council opposes same-sex marriage amendment," December 7, 2011
  52. YesWeekly, "Black leaders reject marriage amendment," April 4, 2012
  53. On Top Magazine,"Campaign To Defeat North Carolina Gay Marriage Ban Launched," January 19, 2012
  54. Protect All NC Families - Videos,"Protect All NC Families - Videos,"
  55. WBTV,"Hundreds rally in Charlotte against anti-gay marriage amendment," June 24, 2011
  56. The Charlotte Observer,"Fight gears up on same-sex marriage in North Carolina," August 15, 2011
  57. Associated Press,"Rhetoric heats up in fight over same-sex marriage," September 7, 2011
  58. Associated Press,"Marriage amendment foes rally at N.C. Legislature," September 13, 2011
  59. ShelbyStar.com,"Gay marriage ban prompts street protest in Charlotte," October 20, 2011
  60. WXII12,"Gay Marriage Amendment Opponents Planning NC March," January 20, 2012
  61. Mountain Xpress, "Equality NC kicks off "race to the ballot," January 29, 2012
  62. newsobserver.com, "Marriage amendment debate focuses on domestic violence," March 4, 2012
  63. Shelby Star, "Church to host discussion on same-sex marriage ban," February 3, 2012
  64. The Herald-Sun, "Musicians, artists rally against amendment," April 28, 2012
  65. Washington Blade, "Twitter fundraiser aids N.C. amendment fight," May 1, 2012
  66. Coalition to Protect NC Families pre-referendum campaign finance report, accessed May 2, 2012
  67. Human Rights Campaign NC Families PAC pre-referendum campaign finance report, accessed May 2, 2012
  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 News & Observer,"Ballot's omitted clause on same-sex marriage ban raises objections," September 22, 2011
  69. News & Observer,"Amendment to ban same-sex marriage to be on May ballot," September 12, 2011
  70. Public News Service, "Analysts: Perdue Decision Could Affect Marriage Amendment," January 27, 2012
  71. The Pilot, "Amendment One Deserves Defeat," April 19, 2012
  72. The Indy Week, "2012 Primary Endorsements - Constitutional Amendment 1," April 18, 2012
  73. The New York Times, "Bigotry on the Ballot," April 29, 2012
  74. Spring Hope Enterprise, "Amendment a very bad idea," April 5, 2012
  75. Elon University Polll,"March poll," March 23, 2009
  76. Elon University Poll,"February Poll," February 28, 2011
  77. John W. Pope Civitas Institute,"Civitas Poll: Unaffiliated Voters Still Support Marriage Amendment," September 6, 2011
  78. Digtriad.com,"A New Poll Shows 56% of North Carolinians Oppose Gay Marriage Ban," September 30, 2011
  79. The Times News.com,"Elon poll: Most opposed to constitutional ban on same-sex marriage," September 30, 2011
  80. Public Policy Polling,"NC marriage amendment has plenty of support in primary test," October 7, 2011
  81. Adocate.com,"Poll Has Bad News for North Carolina, But Not All Bad," October 13, 2011
  82. Public Policy Polling,"Marriage amendment leading by 24, Perdue down 9," November 4, 2011
  83. Elon University Poll,"Elon Poll: State residents divided on OWS movement," November 7, 2011
  84. Public Policy Polling,"Perdue remains down to McCrory by 10, would romp Faison," December 9, 2011
  85. Public Policy Polling, "N.C. GOP legislators’ popularity in the toilet," January 12, 2012
  86. Elon University Polll, "Support growing for same-sex marriage rights," April 2, 2012
  87. Public Policy Polling, "Momentum turning against NC marriage amendment," April 24, 2012
  88. Public Policy Polling, "Amendment One still up 14 points in N.C.," May 1, 2012
  89. The Washington Independent,"Anti-gay marriage amendment heads to N.C. ballot without public input," September 13, 2011