United States Senate special election in Massachusetts, 2013

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Massachusetts held a special election for the U.S. Senate in 2013. The general election took place on June 25, 2013, following a primary election on April 30, 2013.[1][2]

The special election was held to fill the vacancy left by the appointment of Senator John Kerry (D) as U.S. Secretary of State.

On January 30, 2013, Mo Cowan was appointed by Gov. Deval Patrick to fill the vacancy. Cowan, a Democrat who previously served as Patrick's Chief of Staff, served as interim Senator until voters chose Kerry's official successor in the June 25 special election.[3][4][5]

On December 21, 2012, President Barack Obama announced that he was nominated Kerry to the position of Secretary of State. On January 29, 2013, the Senate confirmed Kerry's appointment by a vote of 94-3. He officially succeeded Secretary Hillary Clinton on Friday, February 1, 2013.[6][7]

Massachusetts has a mostly closed primary system, in which the selection of a party's candidates in an election is limited to registered party members. In Massachusetts, however, independent voters may select which party's primary to vote in.

In the week following the bombing at the Boston Marathon, all campaigning halted. It resumed on Monday, April 22, 2013.[8]

The Democratic nominee, Ed Markey, was expected to be a heavy favorite in the general election.[9]

Candidate Filing Deadline Primary Election General Election
February 27, 2013
April 30, 2013
June 25, 2013


General election

Democratic Party Ed MarkeyApproveda
Republican Party Gabriel Gomez
Independent Richard Heos (Twelve Visions Party)[10]

Democratic Party Democratic Primary

Republican Party Republican Primary

Election results

General election

U.S. Senate, Massachusetts Special General Election, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngEd Markey 54.9% 645,429
     Republican Gabriel Gomez 44.7% 525,307
     Twelve Visions Party Richard Heos 0.4% 4,550
Total Votes 1,175,286
Source: Election Results from Massachusetts Elections Division

Primary Elections

Democratic Primary

U.S. Senate, Massachusetts Special Democratic Primary, 2013
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngEd Markey 57.5% 311,219
Stephen Lynch 42.5% 230,335
Total Votes 541,554
Source: Election Results from Massachusetts Elections Division

Republican Primary

U.S. Senate, Massachusetts Special Republican Primary, 2013
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngGabriel Gomez 50.9% 96,057
Mike Sullivan 36% 67,946
Daniel Winslow 13.1% 24,662
Total Votes 188,665
Source: Election Results from Massachusetts Elections Division

Race background

Senator John Kerry served the state of Massachusetts since he was first elected in 1984. In December 2012, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed Hillary Clinton as the nation's secretary of state and his appointment was confirmed by the Senate the following January. To become secretary of state, Kerry has to vacate his Senate seat almost two years before his current term's expiration. According to Massachusetts law, Gov. Deval Patrick (D) had to appoint an interim Senator to fill the vacancy until a successor could be selected by voters in a special election. On January 30, 2013, Patrick selected former Chief of Staff Mo Cowan (D) to serve in Kerry's place until the special election, which was held on June 25.[3][4][5]

On February 1, 2013, former U.S. Senator Scott Brown announced that he was not going to seek Kerry's vacant seat.[18]

According to a story in the Boston Herald, the race for the open U.S. Senate in Massachusetts was estimated to cost the state at least $13.5 million. Of that, $5.2 million was incurred by the Massachusetts Secretary of State's office and the other estimated $8.3 million includes the costs incurred by the Massachusetts cities and towns.[19]

Going into the primary election, public polling showed Markey as the front-runner, but strategists from both camps acknowledge the "politically destabilizing impact" of the Boston terror attacks that killed three people and injured 264.[11]

The race was included on a Washington Post list of the Top 5 races of 2013.[20]

Campaign donors

General election

Headed into the general election, Ed Markey (D) had a significant campaign funding edge.[21] As of the reporting period prior to the April 30 primary, Markey raised nearly $4.8 million in individual contributions compared with Gabriel Gomez (R), who reported raising about $582,000 from supporters.[21]

Gomez opened a joint fundraising committee with the National Republican Senatorial Committee in an effort to narrow the fundraising gap with Rep. Ed Markey.[22] The Gabriel Gomez Victory Fund 2013 was created on May 7.[21] "We will do what we can in the short six weeks left to compete with the national Democratic machine. We certainly know that we won’t raise or spend as much as Congressman Markey," said Gomez campaign spokesman Will Ritter.

The decision to create the joint fundraising committee came after Markey created his own joint fundraising committee with the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee.[21]

According to the FEC, joint fundraising committees are allowed to collect contributions, pay fundraising expenses and distribute net proceeds to two or more committees.[21]

In the final pre-election fundraising report, Markey maintained his lead over Gomez, outspending him by nearly $4 million.[23]

Markey raised $1 million more than Gomez from April 11 to June 5 and spent $5.5 million, according to Federal Election Commission pre-general election reports.[23] Gomez, who had about $500,000 at the start of the reporting period, spent $1.6 million over the past two months.[23]

Democratic candidates

U.S. Rep. Edward Markey raised about $4.8 million prior to the primary election.[24][25] Markey's Democratic rival, fellow U.S. Rep. Stephen Lynch reported raising approximately $1.5 million from late January through the primary election, adding to the $745,000 left over from his last House race.[24]

After beginning with more than $3 million in his congressional campaign account at the start of the campaign, Markey had a total of $7.8 million on hand in early April. After spending about $3.2 million, his account was left with about $4.6 million as of April 10, 2013.[24] According to reports, more than 53 percent of the money raised by Markey came from outside of the state, with only approximately 47 percent coming from Massachusetts donors. According to Markey's campaign, approximately 83 percent of the more than 18,000 individuals who contributed to his campaign gave $100 or less.[24]

Lynch reported spending more than $1.7 million through April 10 and had more than $514,000 left in his account for the final stretch.[24] According to his campaign, about 93 percent of the approximately 3,300 individual donors live in Massachusetts and approximately 45 percent of those who donated to his campaign gave $100 or less.[24]

Republican candidates

Of the three Republicans that ran for the nomination — former U.S. Attorney Michael Sullivan, state Rep. Daniel Winslow and businessman Gabriel Gomez — Gomez reported raising the most, nearly $1.2 million, although that included $600,000 he loaned his campaign.[24] He reported having $499,743 left in his account as of April 10, 2013.[24] Sullivan reported raising $174,498, with $96,369 cash on hand.[24] Winslow reported raising $394,549, with $158,550 in personal donations.[24] He had $142,243 cash on hand.[24]


General election

General candidates: Markey v. Gomez
Poll Ed Markey Gabriel GomezUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
June 6-9, 2013
Suffolk University
June 6-9, 2013
Public Policy Polling
June 3-4, 2013
New England College
June 1-2, 2013
Yougov America
May 30-June 4, 2013
Public Policy Polling
May 13-15, 2013
May 5-7, 2013
May5-6, 2013
Suffolk University/News 7
May 4-7, 2013
Public Policy Polling
May 3, 2013
AVERAGES 47.3% 38.8% 13.8% +/-3.99 701
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

General candidates: Markey v. Gomez
Poll Ed Markey Gabriel GomezUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Suffolk University
June 19-22
Western New England University
June 16-20, 2013
New England College
June 18-20, 2013
Emerson College
June 19-20, 2013
UMass Lowell-Boston Herald (dead link)
June 15-19, 2013
McLaughlin & Associates
June 17-19, 2013
June 16-17, 2013
Boston Globe
June 11-14, 2013
Harper Polling
June 10-11, 2013
AVERAGES 51.22% 39.78% 8.44% +/-3.74 752.33
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

The OnMessage poll from May 5-7, 2013 was commissioned jointly by the Gomez campaign and National Republican Senatorial Committee.[26]

Democratic primary

Democratic primary candidates: Markey v. Lynch
Poll Ed Markey Stephen LynchUndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Released by Stephen Lynch campaign
April 24, 2013
Western New England Univ
April 11-18, 2013
Public Policy Polling
March 26-27,2013
Mass Inc./WBUR
March 19-21,2013
UMass Lowell/Boston Herald
March 2-March 5, 2013
MassINC Polling Group
February 11-13
Public Policy Polling
January 29-30
AVERAGES 43.79% 25.77% 26.93% +/-4.14 637.43
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

The UMASS Lowell/Boston Herald poll also indicated that, if the June 25 general election were held on that date, March 6th, Ed Markey would defeat state Representative Daniel Winslow by 23 percentage points, former Navy SEAL Gabriel Gomez by 19.5 percentage points, and former US attorney Michael Sullivan by 17 points.[27]


General election

Republican nominee Gabriel Gomez released his first ad of the general election on May 17th, "Idea"

Democratic nominee Ed Markey released an ad on May 8th, "Innovation"

On May 8, 2013, Markey released a television ad, "Innovation," that focused on technological advances in the state.[28] Markey’s TV ad buy was the first since he won the Democratic nomination and was designed to improve his image after the tough primary battle against U.S. Rep. Stephen Lynch.[29]

A Gomez spokesman said the Democratic nominee’s ad buy showed his campaign was worried and ready to unload “mudslinging” ads as the general election race got under way.[29] Gomez spokesman Lenny Alcivar said, “I would not be surprised given his anemic poll numbers and his refusal to talk about what matters to voters.”[29] A Markey spokesman refused to get into details about the new ads.[29]

The chairman of the Republican National Committee, Reince Priebus, joined Gomez in calling for Markey to pull what he called “offensive” web ads with Gomez’s face placed next to Osama bin Laden’s.[29]

Markey had been on the attack since winning the primary and slammed Gomez for supporting a group that criticized President Obama for trying to 
politicize bin Laden’s death and for Gomez's refusal to sign a “people’s pledge” to keep out-of-state super PACs from getting involved in the race.[29]

Democrat Ed Markey's first negative ad, "Clear Differences"

On May 16th Markey released his first negative ad of the campaign, attacking his Republican opponent on gun control.[30][31]

Gomez's campaign adviser Lenny Alcivar slammed the new spot and responded by saying "Congressman Ed Markey is desperate and worried about losing this election to outsider Gabriel Gomez. In the middle of the worst Washington scandals in a generation, lifelong politician Ed Markey just launched a desperate, negative attack ad slinging mud.”[30]

After his primary win, Gomez targeted independents and moderate Democrats in a bid to stage the kind of upset that Brown pulled off in 2010.[29] As of early May 2013, he had poured nearly $1 million of his own money into the race.[29]

Gomez released his first general election ad on May 17, 2013.[32] The ad emphasized his military and immigrant background.[32] The ad did not mention Gomez's opponent, Ed Markey].[32]

The Gomez campaign ran the ad statewide, but did not reveal how much they spent to air the spots.[32] Contracts with local affiliates filed with the Federal Communications Commission (FEC) indicated that the buy was at least $200,000.[32]

Beginning on May 29, 2013, Gomez released a new television ad, "Something New," that attacked Markey for running negative advertising against him, including juxtaposing Gomez’s face with Osama bin Laden’s.[33] The ad shows the offending clips from the Markey ads.[33] It then switches to flattering videos of Gomez campaigning. The ad stresses Gomez’s biography as a businessman and a former Navy SEAL and touts his plan to reform Congress. “Let’s try something new,” it said.[33]

Democrat Ed Markey released an ad addressing tax policies on May 28, 2013, "Tax Fairness"

Gabriel Gomez released an ad addressing negative campaigning on May 29, 2013, "Something New"

In response to a battle over tax policy, Markey announced the release of a television ad that played up his advocacy for higher taxes on corporations and millionaires.[34] The 30-second spot, “Tax Fairness,” hit Gomez on tax policy -- the same issue that the Republican nominee’s campaign said it planned to focus on, argued that Markey’s consistent support for higher taxes was out of step with voters.[34][35]

In the ad, a narrator pointed to Markey’s support for “closing corporate tax loopholes and passing the Warren Buffett rule, making millionaires pay the same tax rate as the middle class.” The so-called Buffett rule restricted the access that affluent taxpayers have to loopholes and tax rates that allow them to pay lower effective tax rates than middle-class ones.[34]

In response, Gomez spokesman Will Ritter wrote in an email, “Gabriel Gomez supports comprehensive tax reform for everyone, closing tax loopholes and lowering the tax rate so Massachusetts companies can hire again and bring back jobs. Ed Markey has voted in favor of raising taxes 271 times. Now he wants to distract from that record with tired political theatre and negative ads.”[34]

The first week of June 2013, less than a month before the general election, Gomez and the Massachusetts GOP purchased $411,000 worth of air time in Boston and Springfield.[36] The ad started running on June 5, 2013.[36][37][38] This was the second TV buy involving the Massachusetts GOP, which brought its spending total to roughly $800,000.[36] The state party reported having just over $360,000 cash on hand at the beginning of June.[36]

Republican nominee Gabriel Gomez's final ad of the campaign, "17 months."

Senate Majority PAC's ad attacking Gomez on his position on Social Security and his support for raising the retirement age, "Trust."

The Senate Majority PAC announced on June 12, 2013, the extension of its ad buy in the Massachusetts Senate race to run through the end of the election.[39] The PAC spent at least $500,000 more on the buy, and continued to air the ad it launched which attacked Gabriel Gomez (R) on his position on Social Security and his support for raising the retirement age.[39] The ad buy brought the total the Senate Majority PAC spent on the race to an estimated $1 million.[39]

On June 21, 2013, just days before the June 25th general special election, Republican nominee Gabriel Gomez’s campaign put an additional $300,000 behind a television ad, as the result of a fund-raising surge in the campaign’s closing days.[40] Gomez adviser Lenny Alcivar said the infusion brought in cash the campaign did not expect to have, and he pointed to Gomez’s performance in the final debate as a motivation for donors.[40] The money was used to amplify the “17 Months” ad, which showed a debate clip that the campaign has decided to make its closing argument.[40]

Democratic primary

Democrat Stephen Lynch's ad post-bombing at the Boston Marathon, "Message from Stephen Lynch"

Democrat Ed Markey's 3rd television advertisement "77 Cents"

On April 4, 2013, Democrat Ed Markey released his third television ad, "77 Cents." After taking a week hiatus from campaigning after the bombings at the Boston Marathon, the candidates resumed their television ads on Tuesday April 23, 2013.[41]

Lynch launched a new TV ad focused exclusively on the tragedy and avoiding any mention of the campaign except for the required language approving the ad’s message, stating in the ad, "My heart goes out to those affected by this unthinkable terrorist attack. I want to thank those whose actions saved lives and the police whose heroic efforts brought it all to an end. In the face of this tragedy, our city and state offered a stunning example of the strength of the human spirit. We hold in our hearts those we lost but we will get through this together and work toward a brighter day.”[41]

Markey, who also resumed TV advertising on April 23, returned to circulation an existing ad, "77 cents" focused on women’s issues, said he co-sponsored an equal pay for equal work measure, helped force insurance companies to cover mammograms and has a strong record of supporting abortion rights.[41]


General election

On May 1, 2013, just a day following the Democratic primary, Massachusetts Democrats held a unity rally for nominee Ed Markey that included primary challenger Rep. Stephen Lynch, who pledged his support for Markey.[42]

On May 28, 2013, President Obama endorsed Democratic nominee Ed Markey for the seat.[43][44] On June 5, 2013 the League of Conservation Voters announced it was spending nearly $400,000 on a mailing campaigning targeting Gabriel Gomez over his support of the proposed Keystone XL Oil Pipeline.[45] The environmental group, who endorsed Markey, spent the money to send mailers to 150,000 households that touted Markey's work on expanding clean-energy jobs and reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.[46][47]

Weeks before the general election, an array of big names campaigned for Markey, including President Obama, Michelle Obama, Vice-President Joe Biden, former Vice-President Al Gore and former President Bill Clinton.[48][49] Gomez also had a national political figure campaign for him, as Senator John McCain came to Massachusetts to support Gomez.[49]

Democratic primary

Stephen Lynch

On February 21, 2013, Stephen Lynch received the endorsement of the Massachusetts Building Trades Council. The Local 7 Iron Workers union, where Lynch served as president, is a member of the Building Trades Council.[50]

Ed Markey

On February 23, 2013, Ed Markey was endorsed by the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council 93. This union represented 35,000 Massachusetts employee and was an affiliate group of the nation labor union that shares its name.[51]

Markey's campaign released a list of over 100 state politicians on April 25, 2013.[52] The list included House Speaker Robert DeLeo, Attorney General Martha Coakley and Treasurer Steven Grossman.[52] It also included 17 state Senators, 63 state Representatives and 18 mayors – including all the mayors and state legislators in the 5th Congressional District, which Markey represented.[52]

On April 27, 2013, Caroline Kennedy announced her endorsement for Markey. In a press-release Markey stated, "I'm so proud to have the support of Caroline Kennedy, a friend and passionate advocate for our children, families, and seniors. I share Caroline's commitment to taking on big fights for the people of Massachusetts, and in the Senate I will fight to defend President Obama's historic health care reform law, protect a woman's right to choose, and ensure all people have access to the opportunities to succeed in the 21st century."[53]

District history

Candidate ballot access
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On November 6, 2012, Democratic challenger Elizabeth Warren defeated Republican incumbent Scott Brown.[54]

U.S. Senate, Massachusetts General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngElizabeth Warren 53.3% 1,696,346
     Republican Scott Brown Incumbent 45.8% 1,458,048
     N/A All Others 0.1% 2,159
     N/A Blank Votes 0.9% 27,643
Total Votes 3,184,196
Source: Massachusetts Secretary of State "Return of Votes"


On January 19, 2010, Brown won election to the United States Senate. He defeated Martha Coakley (D) and Joseph L. Kennedy (L) in the special election.[55]

U.S. Senate Special Election, Massachusetts, 2010
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngScott Brown 51.9% 1,168,178
     Democratic Martha Coakley 47.1% 1,060,861
     Libertarian Joseph L. Kennedy 1% 22,388
     Independent Write-In 0.1% 1,155
Total Votes 2,252,582


On November 4, 2008, Kerry won re-election to the United States Senate. He defeated Jeffrey Beatty and Robert Underwood in the general election.[56]

U.S. Senate General Election, Massachusetts, 2008
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngJohn Kerry Incumbent 65.9% 1,971,974
     Republican Jeffrey Beatty 31% 926,044
     Libertarian Robert Underwood 3.1% 93,713
Total Votes 2,991,731

See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 Boston.com, "Secretary of state to set Senate special election date of June 25," January 28, 2013
  2. The Boston Globe, "William ‘Mo’ Cowan to be interim US senator," January 30, 2013
  3. 3.0 3.1 The New York Times, "Governor Names Longtime Friend to Kerry’s Seat" January 30, 2013
  4. 4.0 4.1 Washington Post, "Who is Mo Cowan?" January 30, 2013
  5. 5.0 5.1 The Boston Globe, "William ‘Mo’ Cowan to be interim US senator," January 30, 2013
  6. The Washington Post, "John Kerry confirmed as secretary of state," January 29, 2013
  7. CBS News, "Obama taps John Kerry to be Secretary of State," December 21, 2012
  8. USA Today, "Mass. Senate campaign resumes after Boston bombing" accessed April 22, 2013
  9. Washington Post, "Lynch cancels most campaign events, citing illness" accessed April 29, 2013
  10. Massachusetts Elections Division, "Special State Election Candidates" accessed June 25, 2013
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Boston Globe, "Five candidates submit required number of signatures for special election for US Senate," accessed February 27, 2013
  12. WCVB "2013 U.S. Senate Special Election Results" accessed April 30, 2013
  13. Sentinelandenterprise.com, "Lynch challenges Markey for Senate seat," February 1, 2013
  14. Boston Globe, "State Rep. Dan Winslow ‘99 percent’ sure he will run for US Senate," February 5, 2013
  15. The Hill" "Gomez officially announces bid for Mass. Senate seat," February 12, 2013
  16. WCVB "2013 U.S. Senate Special Election Results" accessed April 30, 2013
  17. Fox 25, MyFoxBoston, "Sullivan: I will run in special election as long as I get 10K signatures," February 19, 2013
  18. Business Insider, "Scott Brown Is NOT Running For Senate," February 1, 2013
  19. Boston Herald, "Election to fill Kerry seat to cost Mass. $13.5M," February 14, 2013
  20. Washingotn Post, "The Fix's Top 5 Races of 2013" accessed March 18, 2013
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named fund
  22. Boston Globe, "GOP's Gomez opens new Senate fundraising committee" accessed May 15, 2013 (dead link)
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Roll Call, "Markey Outspends Gomez by $4 Million #MASEN" accessed June 17, 2013
  24. 24.00 24.01 24.02 24.03 24.04 24.05 24.06 24.07 24.08 24.09 24.10 Seattle PI "Democratic Rep. Markey raises $4.8M for Senate bid" accessed April 22, 21013
  25. The Hill, "Markey raises 4.8 million for Massachusetts Senate Race" accessed April 28, 2013
  26. National Journal "In Massachusetts, Gomez Internal Poll Shows Close Race" accessed May 14, 2013
  27. Boston Herald "Markey leads Lynch by wide margin in new poll" accessed March 7, 2013
  28. Youtube, "Ed Markey--Innovation" accessed May 9, 2013
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 Boston Herald, "Markey’s TV ad buy may 
mean he’s running scared" accessed May 9, 2013
  30. 30.0 30.1 Boston Globe, "Markey launches first negative TV ad in campaign" accessed May 20, 2013
  31. Mass Live, "Ed Markey Ad Attacks Gabriel Gomez" accessed May 20, 2013
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 National Journal, "Gabriel Gomez Launches His First General Election TV Ad in Mass. Special" accessed May 17, 2013
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Mass Live, "New Gabriel Gomez TV ad attacks Ed Markey for negative ads in Massachusetts U.S. Senate campaign" accessed May 29, 2013
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 Boston Globe, "Markey ad hits Gomez for opposing higher taxes" accessed May 29, 2013
  35. Talking Points Memo, "Markey Ad Blasts Opponent For Supporting Tax Policies That Help The Rich" accessed May 29, 2013
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Politico, "Big ad buy for Gabriel Gomez in Massachusetts Senate race" accessed June 4, 2013
  37. The Hill, "Report: GOP spending $400,000 on Gomez ad buy" accessed June 4, 2013
  38. Mass Live, "Republicans spend $400,000 on Gabriel Gomez ad buy" accessed June 4, 2013
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 The Hill, "Senate Majority PAC increases ad buy in Massachusetts" accessed June 19, 2013
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Boston.com, "Republican US Senate candidate Gabriel Gomez campaign claims $300,000 surge in fund-raising" accessed June 21, 2013
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Boston Globe, "US Senate candidates resume TV ads" accessed April 25, 2013
  42. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named unity
  43. Talking Points Memo, "Obama Endorses Markey for Mass Senate Seat" accessed May 29, 2013
  44. pwww.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-politics/wp/2013/06/04/obama-heads-to-boston-to-campaign-for-markey/?wprss=rss_politics Washington Post, "Obama heads to Boston to campaign for Markey" accessed June 4, 2013]
  45. Mass Live, "League of Conservation Voters steps-up attacks on Republican U.S. Senate hopeful Gabriel Gomez with nearly $400K mailing campaign" accessed June 6, 2013
  46. The Hill, "Environmental group sending mailers for Markey in Mass. Senate race" accessed June 6, 2013
  47. League of Conservation Voters, "Mail Piece for Markey" accessed June 6, 2013
  48. Politico, "Joe Biden heading to Massachusetts for Ed Markey" accessed June 20, 2013
  49. 49.0 49.1 Politico, "Bill Clinton to campaign for Ed Markey" accessed June 13, 2013
  50. MassLive.com, "Massachusetts Building Trades Council endorses Democratic Senate candidate Stephen Lynch," February 21, 2013
  51. MassLive.com, "Democratic Senate candidate Ed Markey lands endorsement from AFSCME Council 93 union representing 35k Massachusetts employees," February 23, 2013
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Mass Live, "Markey Touts Support from 100 State Politicians" accessed April 28, 2013
  53. Huffington Post, "Caroline Kennedy Endorses Ed Markey In Massachusetts Senate Race" accessed April 28, 2013
  54. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Massachusetts"
  55. Elections Division, State of Massachusetts, "Special Election Results, January 19, 2010"
  56. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008"