Maryland House of Delegates

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Maryland House of Representatives

Seal of Maryland.jpg
General Information
Type:   Lower house
Term limits:   None
2015 session start:   January 14, 2015
Website:   Official House Page
Leadership
House Speaker:  Michael Busch (D)
Majority Leader:   Anne Kaiser (D)
Minority leader:   Nicholaus Kipke (R)
Structure
Members:  141
  
Vacant (1)
Length of term:   4 years
Authority:   Art III, Maryland Constitution
Salary:   $43,500/year + per diem
Elections
Last Election:  November 4, 2014 (141 seats)
Next election:  November 6, 2018 (141 seats)
Redistricting:  General Assembly has control
Meeting place:
Maryland house of delegates.jpg
The Maryland House of Delegates is the lower house of the Maryland General Assembly. The House of Delegates meets at the State Capitol in Annapolis. There are 141 members elected to four-year terms. The current four-year term structure was instituted in 1922. From 1845 to 1922, Delegates served two-year terms.[1] Delegates are given 90 days to act on over 2,500 pieces of legislation, including the State Budget.[2]

Each member represents an average of 40,947 residents, as of the 2010 Census.[3]

As of February 2015, Maryland is one of 19 states that is under divided government and is therefore not one of the state government trifectas.

See also: Maryland State Legislature, Maryland State Senate, Maryland Governor

Sessions

Article III of the Maryland Constitution establishes when the Maryland General Assembly, of which the House of Delegates is a part, is to be in session. Section 14 of Article III states that the General Assembly is to convene in regular session every year on the second Wednesday of January.

Section 14 also contains the procedures for convening extraordinary sessions of the General Assembly. If a majority of the members of each legislative house petition the Governor of Maryland with a request for an extraordinary session, the Governor is constitutionally required to proclaim an extraordinary session.

Article II of the Maryland Constitution also gives the Governor of Maryland the power to proclaim an extraordinary session without the request of the General Assembly.

2015

See also: Dates of 2015 state legislative sessions

In 2015, the General Assembly is projected to be in session from January 14 through April 13.

Major issues

Major issues in the 2015 legislative session include the state budget shortfall, expanding charter schools, marijuana decriminalization, fracking and heroin overdoses.[4]

2014

See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions

In 2014, the Legislature was in session from January 8 to April 7.

Major issues

Major issues during the 2014 legislative session included addressing the state's minimum wage, emergency health insurance, marijuana legalization and tax relief.[5]

2013

See also: Dates of 2013 state legislative sessions

In 2013, the Legislature was in session from January 9 through April 8.

Major issues

Major issues during the 2013 legislative session included an assault weapons ban, boosting the state's wind power industry, repeal of the death penalty and transportation funding.[6]

2012

See also: Dates of 2012 state legislative sessions

In 2012, the House was in session from January 11 through April 19.

2011

In 2011, the House was in session from January 12 through April 8.[7] A special redistricting session was held from October 17 to October 20.[8][9]

2010

In 2010, the Maryland General Assembly was in session from January 13 to April 10.[10]

Role in state budget

See also: Maryland state budget

The state operates on an annual budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[11][12]

  1. Budget instructions are sent to state agencies in June of the year preceding the start of the new fiscal year.
  2. State agencies submit their budget requests to the governor in late August.
  3. Agency hearings are held from October through November.
  4. Public hearings are held from January through March.
  5. The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature on the third Wednesday in January.
  6. The legislature typically adopts a budget in April. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The fiscal year begins July 1.

Maryland is one of 44 states in which the governor has line item veto authority.[12]

The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget proposal. Likewise, the legislature is legally required to adopt a balanced budget.[12]

Cost-benefit analyses

See also: Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative Cost-Benefit Study
Map showing results of the Pew-MacArthur cost-benefit study.

The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative released a report in July 2013 which indicated that cost-benefit analysis in policymaking led to more effective uses of public funds. Looking at data from 2008 through 2011, the study's authors found that some states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis while others were facing challenges and lagging behind the rest of the nation. Among the challenges states faced were a lack of time, money and technical skills needed to conduct comprehensive cost-benefit analyses. Maryland was one of 29 states with mixed results regarding the frequency and effectiveness in its use of cost-benefit analysis.[13]

Ethics and transparency

Following the Money report

See also: Following the Money 2014 Report

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending.[14] According to the report, Maryland received a grade of B- and a numerical score of 82.5, indicating that Maryland was "advancing" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.[14]

Open States Transparency

See also: Open States' Legislative Data Report Card

The Sunlight Foundation released an "Open Legislative Data Report Card" in March 2013. Maryland was given a grade of B in the report. The report card evaluated how adequate, complete and accessible legislative data is to the general public. A total of 10 states received an A -- Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington.[15]

Elections

2014

See also: Maryland House of Delegates elections, 2014

Elections for the office of Maryland House of Delegates took place in 2014. A primary election took place on June 24, 2014. The general election was held on November 4, 2014. The filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was February 25, 2014.

2010

See also: Maryland House of Delegates elections, 2010

Elections for the office of Maryland House of Delegates were held in Maryland on November 2, 2010. The signature-filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in these elections was July 6, 2010 and the primary election was held on September 14, 2010.

In 2010, candidates running for state house raised a total of $14,870,197 in campaign contributions. The top 10 donors were:[16]

2006

See also: Maryland House of Delegates elections, 2006

Elections for the office of Maryland House of Delegates consisted of a primary election on September 12, 2006, and a general election on November 7, 2006.

During the 2006 election, the total value of contributions to House candidates was $16,245,588. The top 10 contributors were:[17]

2002

See also: Maryland House of Delegates elections, 2002

Elections for the office of Maryland House of Delegates consisted of a primary election on September 10, 2002, and a general election on November 5, 2002.

During the 2002 election, the total value of contributions to House candidates was $12,715,258. The top 10 contributors were:[18]

Qualifications

Section 9 of Article 3 of the Maryland Constitution states, "A person is eligible to serve as a Senator or Delegate, who on the date of his election, (1) is a citizen of the State of Maryland, (2) has resided therein for at least one year next preceding that date, and (3) if the district which he has been chosen to represent has been established for at least six months prior to the date of his election, has resided in that district for six months next preceding that date.

If the district which the person has been chosen to represent has been established less than six months prior to the date of his election, then in addition to (1) and (2) above, he shall have resided in the district for as long as it has been established.

A person is eligible to serve as a Senator, if he has attained the age of twenty-five years, or as a Delegate, if he has attained the age of twenty-one years, on the date of his election."

Vacancies

See also: How vacancies are filled in state legislatures
How Vacancies are filled in State Legislatures
NevadaMassachusettsColoradoNew MexicoWyomingArizonaMontanaCaliforniaOregonWashingtonIdahoTexasOklahomaKansasNebraskaSouth DakotaNorth DakotaMinnesotaIowaMissouriArkansasLouisianaMississippiAlabamaGeorgiaFloridaSouth CarolinaIllinoisWisconsinTennesseeNorth CarolinaIndianaOhioKentuckyPennsylvaniaNew JerseyNew YorkVermontVermontNew HampshireMaineWest VirginiaVirginiaMarylandMarylandConnecticutConnecticutDelawareDelawareRhode IslandRhode IslandMassachusettsNew HampshireMichiganMichiganAlaskaVacancy fulfillment map.png

The Governor is responsible for filling all vacancies in the house.[19]

The Governor has 30 days after the vacancy to make an appointment based on the recommendations of the political party committee that holds the vacant seat. The political party committee has up to 30 days after the vacancy to submit a list of recommended candidates to the Governor. If the party committee fails to act within the 30 day deadline, the Governor has 15 days to appoint a person from the political party that last held the seat.[20]

The person appointed to the seat serves for the remainder of the unfilled term.[21]

Redistricting

See also: Redistricting in Maryland

Maryland employs two distinct processes for state legislative and Congressional redistricting. The General Assembly bears primary responsibility, proposing and passing the redistricting plan as ordinary legislation, and the Governor of Maryland can veto the plan. For state legislative redistricting, the Governor is responsible for drafting plans and submitting the new maps to the General Assembly. The Governor, aided by an advisory commission, submits a plan, and the chamber leadership introduces the plan as a joint resolution. The General Assembly may then adopt the plan or pass another. If a plan is not adopted by the 45th day of the session, the Governor's plan becomes law.[22]

2010

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Maryland's population grew from 5.30 million to 5.77 million between 2000 and 2010.[23] The growth rate was slightly below the national average, but was one of the fastest rates in the Northeast. Maryland retained all eight Congressional districts, but population shifts suggested that many districts would need to be redrawn.[24] The City of Baltimore lost population relative to other areas of the state.[25]

Gov. Martin O'Malley introduced a state legislative plan on January 11, 2012. Members of the legislature produced alternative plans, but no hearings were scheduled. O'Malley's map became law in February 2012 without a vote.[26] The map-making process had been criticized for the inclusion of a tax evader on the Redistricting Advisory Committee, but O'Malley noted that the financial troubles of this member were not made known to him or the public until later in the process, and this individual was cut off from the process after that point.[27]

The Congressional district map was challenged by petitioners, but a drive to place the matter before voters failed after many of the signatures gathered were voided in a legal decision.[28][29]

Representatives

Partisan composition

See also: Partisan composition of state houses
Party As of February 2015
     Democratic Party 91
     Republican Party 49
     Vacancy 1
Total 141

The chart below shows the partisan composition of the Maryland House of Delegates from 1992 to 2013.
Partisan composition of the Maryland State House.PNG

Leadership

The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the body and is elected by the membership. The Speaker Pro Tempore is also elected by the House, while the Majority Leader is appointed by the Speaker and the Minority Leader is elected by the minority party.[30]

Current leadership

Current Leadership, Maryland House of Delegates
Office Representative Party
State Speaker of the House Michael Busch Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Speaker Pro Tempore Adrienne Jones Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Deputy Speaker Pro Tempore Carolyn Howard Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Speaker Pro Tempore Vacant Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Majority Leader Anne Kaiser Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Deputy Majority Leader Dan Morhaim Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Assistant Majority Leader Tawanna Gaines Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Parliamentarian Bill Frick Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Majority Whip Talmadge Branch Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Chief Deputy Majority Whip Ben Barnes Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Deputy Majority Whip Curtis Anderson
Bonnie Cullison
James Gilchrist
Keith Haynes
Stephen Lafferty
Kirill Reznik
Barbara Robinson
Kris Valderrama
Geraldine Valentino-Smith
Michael Vaughn
Alonzo Washington
Mary Washington
Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Majority Caucus Leader Marvin Holmes, Jr. Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Majority Caucus Vice Chair Vacant Electiondot.png Democratic
State House Minority Leader Nicholaus Kipke Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Leader Michael Hough Ends.png Republican
State House Parliamentarian H. Wayne Norman, Jr. Ends.png Republican
State House Minority Whip Kathy Szeliga Ends.png Republican
State House Assistant Minority Whip Susan Aumann Ends.png Republican
State House Chief Deputy Minority Whip Justin Ready Ends.png Republican
State House Deputy Minority Whip Kathy Afzali
John Cluster
Susan Krebs
Charles Otto
Ends.png Republican
State House Minority Caucus Leader Jay Jacobs Ends.png Republican

Salaries

See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries

As of 2013, members of the Maryland legislature are paid $43,500/year. Legislators receive $100/day for lodging. Additionally, they receive $42 for meals and $225/day for out-of-state travel (which includes meals/lodging).[31]

When sworn in

See also: When state legislators assume office after a general election

Maryland legislators assume office the second Wednesday in January after the election.

Current members

Current members, Maryland House of Delegates
District Representative Party Assumed office
1A Wendell Beitzel Ends.png Republican 2007
1B Jason C. Buckel Ends.png Republican 2015
1C Mike McKay Ends.png Republican 2015
2A Andrew Serafini Ends.png Republican 2008
2A Neil Parrott Ends.png Republican 2011
2B Brett Wilson Ends.png Republican 2015
3A Carol L. Krimm Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
3A Karen Lewis Young Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
3B Bill Folden Ends.png Republican 2015
4 Kathy Afzali Ends.png Republican 2011
4 Vacant
4 David E. Vogt III Ends.png Republican 2015
5 Susan Krebs Ends.png Republican 2003
5 Justin Ready Ends.png Republican 2011
5 Haven Shoemaker Ends.png Republican 2015
6 Robin L. Grammer, Jr. Ends.png Republican 2015
6 Bob Long Ends.png Republican 2015
6 Ric Metzgar Ends.png Republican 2015
7 Rick Impallaria Ends.png Republican 2003
7 Kathy Szeliga Ends.png Republican 2011
7 Pat McDonough Ends.png Republican 2003
8 Christian Miele Ends.png Republican 2015
8 Eric Bromwell Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
8 John Cluster Ends.png Republican 2011
9A Trent Kittleman Ends.png Republican 2015
9A Warren Miller Ends.png Republican 2003
9B Bob Flanagan Ends.png Republican 2015
10 Benjamin Brooks Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
10 Adrienne Jones Electiondot.png Democratic 1997
10 Jay Jalisi Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
11 Shelly Hettleman Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
11 Dan Morhaim Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
11 Dana Stein Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
12 Eric Ebersole Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
12 Terri L. Hill Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
12 Clarence K. Lam Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
13 Shane Pendergrass Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
13 Vanessa Atterbeary Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
13 Frank Turner Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
14 Anne Kaiser Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
14 Craig Zucker Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
14 Eric Luedtke Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
15 Aruna Miller Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
15 Kathleen Dumais Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
15 David Fraser-Hidalgo Electiondot.png Democratic Oct. 2013
16 Ariana Kelly Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
16 C. William Frick Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
16 Marc Korman Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
17 Kumar Barve Electiondot.png Democratic 1991
17 James Gilchrist Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
17 Andrew Platt Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
18 Ana Sol Gutierrez Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
18 Alfred Carr Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
18 Jeff Waldstreicher Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
19 Bonnie Cullison Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
19 Benjamin Kramer Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
19 Marice I. Morales Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
20 David Moon Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
20 Sheila Hixson Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
20 Will Smith Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
21 Barbara Frush Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
21 Ben Barnes Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
21 Joseline Pena-Melnyk Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
22 Tawanna Gaines Electiondot.png Democratic 2001
22 Anne Healey Electiondot.png Democratic 1991
22 Alonzo Washington Electiondot.png Democratic 2012
23A Geraldine Valentino-Smith Electiondot.png Democratic 1992
23B Joseph F. Vallario, Jr. Electiondot.png Democratic 1975
23B Marvin Holmes, Jr. Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
24 Erek Barron Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
24 Carolyn Howard Electiondot.png Democratic 1991
24 Michael Vaughn Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
25 Angela Angel Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
25 Dereck Davis Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
25 Darryl Barnes Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
26 Kris Valderrama Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
26 Jay Walker Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
26 Tony Knotts Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
27A James Proctor, Jr. Electiondot.png Democratic 1990
27B Michael A. Jackson Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
27C Mark Fisher Ends.png Republican 2011
28 Sally Jameson Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
28 C.T. Wilson Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
28 Edith J. Patterson Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
29A Matt Morgan Ends.png Republican 2015
29B Deb Rey Ends.png Republican 2015
29C Anthony O'Donnell Ends.png Republican 1995
30A Michael Busch Electiondot.png Democratic 1987
30A Herb McMillan Ends.png Republican 2011
30B Seth Howard Ends.png Republican 2015
31A Ned Carey Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
31B Nicholaus Kipke Ends.png Republican 2003
31B Meagan C. Simonaire Ends.png Republican 2015
32 Pamela Beidle Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
32 Mark S. Chang Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
32 Theodore Sophocleus Electiondot.png Democratic 1999
33 Cathy Vitale Ends.png Republican 2011
33 Tony McConkey Ends.png Republican 2003
33 Sid Saab Ends.png Republican 2015
34A Glen Glass Ends.png Republican 2011
34A Mary Ann Lisanti Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
34B Susan McComas Ends.png Republican 2003
35A Kevin Hornberger Ends.png Republican 2015
35B Andrew Cassilly Ends.png Republican 2015
35B Teresa Reilly Ends.png Republican 2015
36 Jeff Ghrist Ends.png Republican 2015
36 Jay Jacobs Ends.png Republican 2011
36 Steve Arentz Ends.png Republican Nov. 2013
37A Sheree Sample-Hughes Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
37B Christopher T. Adams Ends.png Republican 2015
37B Johnny Mautz Ends.png Republican 2015
38A Charles Otto Ends.png Republican 2011
38B Carl Anderton, Jr. Ends.png Republican 2015
38C Mary Beth Carozza Ends.png Republican 2015
39 Charles Barkley Electiondot.png Democratic 1998
39 Kirill Reznik Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
39 Shane Robinson Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
40 Frank Conaway, Jr. Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
40 Barbara Robinson Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
40 Antonio Hayes Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
41 Jill Carter Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
41 Nathaniel Oaks Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
41 Samuel Rosenberg Electiondot.png Democratic 1983
42A Stephen Lafferty Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
42B Susan Aumann Ends.png Republican 2003
42B Chris West Ends.png Republican 2015
43 Curt Anderson Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
43 Mary Washington Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
43 Maggie McIntosh Electiondot.png Democratic 1992
44A Keith Haynes Electiondot.png Democratic 2003
44B Charles E. Sydnor III Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
44B Pat Young Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
45 Talmadge Branch Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
45 Cheryl Glenn Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
45 Cory V. McCray Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
46 Peter Hammen Electiondot.png Democratic 1995
46 Luke Clippinger Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
46 Brooke Lierman Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
47A Diana Fennell Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
47A Jimmy Tarlau Electiondot.png Democratic 2015
47B Will Campos Electiondot.png Democratic 2015

Standing committees

The Maryland House of Delegates has seven (7) standing committees:

History

Partisan balance 1992-2013

Who Runs the States Project
See also: Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States and Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States, Maryland
Partisan breakdown of the Maryland legislature from 1992-2013

During every year from 1992 to 2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Maryland House of Delegates. The Maryland House of Delegates is one of 18 state Houses that were Democratic for more than 80 percent of the years between 1992 and 2013. Maryland was under a Democratic trifecta for the last seven years of the study period.

Across the country, there were 577 Democratic and 483 Republican state Houses of Representatives from 1992 to 2013.

Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.

The chart below shows the partisan composition of the Office of the Governor of Maryland, the Maryland State Senate and the Maryland House of Delegates from 1992-2013. Partisan composition of Maryland state government(1992-2013).PNG

SQLI and partisanship

The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Maryland state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Maryland experienced two long periods of Democratic trifectas, between 1992 and 2002 and again between 2007 and 2013. The state cracked the top-10 in the SQLI ranking in three separate years (2002, 2006, and 2008), twice under a Democratic trifecta and once under divided government. Maryland ranked lowest on the SQLI ranking in two separate years (1992 and 1995), in which the state placed 25th under a Democratic trifecta. Maryland has never had a Republican trifecta.

  • SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 16.35
  • SQLI average with Republican trifecta: N/A
  • SQLI average with divided government: 10.75
Chart displaying the partisanship of Maryland government from 1992-2013 and the State Quality of Life Index (SQLI).

External links

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Suggest a link

References

  1. Maryland State Archives, "Origin & Functions," accessed June 15, 2014
  2. Maryland General Assembly, homepage," accessed June15, 2014
  3. census.gov, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," accessed May 15, 2014
  4. The Washington Post, "As Md. legislative session nears, uncertainty about Hogan’s agenda," January 10, 2015
  5. washingtonpost.com, "10 things to watch in the 2014 Maryland General Assembly session," January 7, 2014
  6. Washington Post, "Maryland legislative session begins with bold predictions," January 9, 2013
  7. Maryland Department of Legislative Services, "Journal of Proceedings of the House of Maryland - 2011 Regular Session - Volume I," accessed June 15, 2014 (Referenced p. iv)
  8. Associated Press, "Md. special session anticipated in week of Oct. 17," July 6, 2011
  9. Maryland Department of Legislative Services, "Journal of Proceedings of the House of Delegates of Maryland - 2011 Special Session," accessed June 15, 2014
  10. Maryland Department of Legislative Services, "Journal of Proceedings of the House of Delegates of Maryland - 2010 Regular Session," accessed June 15, 2014 (Referenced p. iv)
  11. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  13. Pew Charitable Trusts, "States’ Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis," July 29, 2013
  14. 14.0 14.1 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
  15. Sunlight Foundation, "Ten Principles for Opening Up Government Information," accessed June 16, 2013
  16. Follow the Money, "Maryland 2010 - Candidates," accessed June 15, 2014
  17. Follow the Money, "Maryland 2006 - Candidates," accessed August 23, 2013
  18. Follow the Money, "Maryland 2002 - Candidates," accessed August 23, 2013
  19. Maryland General Assembly, "Maryland Constitution," accessed December 16, 2013(Referenced Section, Article III, Section 13, Subsection (a)(1))
  20. Maryland General Assembly, "Maryland Constitution," accessed December 16, 2013(Referenced Section, Article III, Section 13, Subsections (a)(1) and (a)(2))
  21. Maryland General Assembly, "Maryland Constitution," accessed December 16, 2013(Referenced Section, Article III, Section 13, Subsection (a)(4))
  22. Maryland Department of Planning, "Redistricting FAQs," accessed June 16, 2011
  23. U.S. Census Bureau, "2010 Census: Maryland Profile, 2011
  24. The Baltimore Sun, "Maryland population grows by 480,000, Census says," December 21, 2010
  25. Baltimore Sun, "Redistricting: Mighty Baltimore to lose influence," August 11, 2011
  26. WBAL, "Lawmakers To Let O'Malley Redistricting Plan Take Effect Without a Vote," accessed February 23, 2012
  27. Baltimore Sun, "Redistricting plan questioned after O'Malley adviser's conviction," December 22, 2011
  28. The Baltimore Sun, "Redistricting Map Foes Say They Have Passed First Test," May 31, 2012
  29. Southern Maryland Online, "Democratic Lawsuit Challenges GOP Petition Success," July 27, 2012
  30. Maryland State Archives, "Organizational Structure," accessed June 15, 2014
  31. NCSL.org, "2012 State Legislator Compensation and Per Diem Table," accessed March 18, 2013